生物科技什么样撰写英文科技论文

怀念只要编一篇优秀之英文科研论文,对于不英语母语的科研工作者而言并非同一项好之政工。有时候能否射到又胜似划分的笔记刊物与写作水平也紧紧。本文通过整理Cell
Research编辑姜姝姝的讲座内容,简单介绍如何编写一首优秀的英文科研论文。

想如果描写一首优秀之英文科研论文,就如先期清楚呀是佳的论文什么不是。
编写不爱看到的文章类型:
(1)逻辑混乱的篇章
(2)用语不当夸大其词或达有误
(3)语法和其他左

一般而言而言一首科研论文包含以下部分:
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Results
Discussion
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgements

Title

题是编辑或者阅读者首先看的,因此收获一个好题至关重要。
咱俩要就此最少之单词概括出文章的主题,对题目来以下三点要求:
1.简洁,完整,易懂
2.避免出现化学式或特殊符号
3.惯常采取以下三栽样式:短语式、句子式和主副式,比如:
短语式:
Cyro-EM structure of human DNA-PK holoenzyme
A vital sugar code for ricin toxicity
句子式:
Suppression of MAPK11 or HIPK3 reduces mutant Huntingtin level in
Huntington’s disease models
Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic
homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage
主副式:
Class I histone deacetylases are major histone decrotonylases: evidecnce
for critical and broad function of histone crotonylation in
transcription

Abstract

Abstract的目的是为救助读者很快了解文章的始末。
发出以下几单要求:
1.独立性与完整性
可以单独在并会传达全文核心思想
2.简洁、准确、逻辑性强
坐Abstract有字数限制,我们必须用不久几词话说明全文的核心思想,因此各级一个单词和语句都如致密斟酌
3.花样符合期刊的正经
坐发表在Cell Research 的‘5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in cell-free
DNA provide information about tumor types and stages’为例:

image.png

Green:课题背景
高亮:结果(可以省略提试艺术)
红线:总结(可以适用展望提升)

Introduction

1.介绍本文研究领域的腾飞景象(mini-review)
介绍内容自然是跟本文主线最相关的研究背景。重要的点定要涉及到。细节处可以于文中提及时再介绍。
2.透过座谈仍研究世界啊釜底抽薪之题目(包括团结前面发表论文不缓解的题材),自然过渡至介绍你的尝试目的与重点。
3.以最终简单介绍本研究所召开的情和结论。
注意:
定要于少的篇幅内到介绍就知道是背景,但是不要过于铺开,只要围绕文章主线着重介绍相关的背景即可。

Materials and Methods

对立而言即是均等篇稿子最轻松的部分,但是是有也是极端易犯错的有的。通常方法材料有些的语法检查最无细致,常见问题包括:时态、单复数、主动被动语态

Results

1.逻辑很要紧,有系统的描述故事。注意段和段中间的逻辑。可以于各一样片段的略微结果的开篇写有承上启下的词以连续段。

  1. 诸一样段落表达一个意。在各级段受到吗只要发生逻辑(时间各个,从连到具体的相继,因果顺序),可以运用平行的句式和中之连接词。开头和结尾很要紧,在结尾处要举行使人印象深刻的强调。
    3.针对试验结果开展精确之叙说。如果语言不当会造成误解。推测的结果应该以一些表示想、可能的梳洗词语。
    4.针对试验结果进行客观之总结与释疑。
    5.如果篇章数施用同一类型实验,在第一次等介绍时只是详细一些,让读者更易掌握,而其后的介绍好简单些。
    6.
    在讲述实验操作及实验结果时用过去不时,在描写结论与诱导时用本常。

叙述实验艺术和结果的常用句式:
We found ……
We have noticed that……
We characterized ……
Our analysis showed ……
In order to ……, we ……
We next detected ……
After that, we examined ……
比较连接的常用句式:
In Contrast ……
Compared with ……
Consistent with ……
In line with……
Importantly ……
Interestingly ……
Of note ……
In addition ……
敲定和启发时之常用句式:
In conclusion ……
These results suggest that ……
The data indicate that ……
These data demonstrate that ……
Taken together, these results provide further evidence that ……

Discussion

座谈是相对难写的有,讨论不是对结果粗略的陈,而是针对结果进行进一步深切之座谈:
你的研讨解决了世界受到怎样问题跟疑惑
若的研讨提出了什么新的或
随后该怎样去进一步研究等
相似,还好于结尾处再下结论一下和谐的研究成果

1976年,William Zinsser在《On Writing Well》提出可以创作之老三规格:

“The secret of good writing is to strip every sentences to its
cleanest components. Every word that serves no function, every long
word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same
meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that
leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what-these are the thousand
and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence. And they
usually occur in proportion to the education and rank.”
1.几近就此主动态(主语+谓语+宾语)
2.多用动词,选择重新确切之动词。突出动词,尽量不要将动词变为名词。
3.简短语言

所以主动态

深受动态包括:宾语+谓语+主语,或宾语+谓语
eg:
Upon the chemical treatment, the activation of XX signaling pathway
could be observed.
好改也:
We could observe the activation of XX signaling pathway upon the
chemical treatment.

General dysfunction of the immune system has been suggested in both
mouse and human studies.
可修改也:
Both mouse and human studies suggested that XX (disease) cause general
dysfunction of the immune system.

动词

  1. 选料重新纯粹的动词
    report approximately 可以用estimate替代
  2. 少用to be (am, is, are, be, been, was, were)
  3. 丢把动词名词化
    provide explanation ->explain
    offer confirmation of ->confirm
    report the identification of ->identify
    the recruitment of A by B to initiate ->B recruits A to
    initiate
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX cytoplasmic
    translocation->
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX to translocate into the
    cytoplasmic
  4. 一经用重点的动词靠近主语
    One study of 120 breast cancer patients who received XX treatment in
    North America found that the 15-year survival rate is low.
    ->One study found that, of 120 breast cancer patients who
    received XX treatment in North America, the 15-year survival rate is
    low.

从简语言的注意事项

1.休需介绍性短语。例如:as it is published; as it is known

2.错过丢没有意义的乐章。例如: important

3.啰嗦底词简化,把精力花在事关重大的句子上
a majority of ->most
a number of ->many
all four of the ->the four
due to the fact that ->because
give rise to ->cause

4.双重意义之歌词要句子用一个
limit condition, output performance

5.推掉一部分副词:very, really, quite

6.用肯定语气
not harmful ->safe
does not have ->lacks
not correct ->wrong
be not the result of A but B ->reflect B rather than A

7.并非常用there is/are
There are many ways in which we can handle this case.
->We can handle this case in many ways.

The data suggest there is an association between temperature and crop
diseases.
->The data suggest an association between temperature and crop
diseases.

It is likely that there exists functional redundancy among XX
proteins.
->It is likely that functional redundancy among XX proteins exists.

8.用标点符号来转句式,精简语言
子公司(semicolon): 连接两独独立的从句。
圆括哀号(parenthesis):
加入解释或者局部设法,即使没有就有的句也应是单独的。
冒号(Colon):
分隔能力弱于分号,比破折号要标准。用于列举,引用,举例,第二只由句是首先独从句之拉开。
破折号(dash): 表示强调,解释或概念。留给重要之用。

于英文作文中我们常犯的问题:
1.科学用语之准头
2.时态误(描述实验过程结果经常用过去式,总结实验结果经常用现在不时)
3.单复数错误
4.’a’,’an’,’the’的以不当
5.比不对准顶:
The root length of XX mutant is shorter than wild type rice.
The root length of XXmutant is shorter than that of wild type
rice.
6.用词生物科技要句式单一
7.语序问题
8.句子过长
9.用口语化用词

末段,那么我们究竟要怎样增强写作技能也?
多看、多读、多写、多总结

足尝尝每次看了论文后之所以两三句子话概括或臧否文章的始末
还可用读了章被的经句式、好歌词摘录下来

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